The Time Of Blades and Magic
A minor clan is a clan recognized by the Emperor of Rokugan that was formed after the foundation of the Empire. Minor clans are officially under the Emperor’s protection, and the Great Clans are forbidden to begin an offensive war against them. The minor clans are all considerably smaller and less powerful than the great clans, and most have only a single recognized family name.
Creation of a Minor Clan
Only the Emperor may create a new minor clan, and the formation of a new minor clan is a very rare event. When a samurai has performed a great service for the Empire or has gained unusual and valuable insight, the Emperor may chose to allow him to gather samurai to his service and form a new minor clan, settling in a tract of land granted to the new Champion by the Emperor. The new minor clan daimyo is expected to teach those who swear to his service to follow his example. The new minor clan will quickly form their own bushi or shugenja school to teach and develop the techniques of their founder.
In the past, several minor clans were created without the Emperor also recognizing a family name for the clan. The Tortoise and Mantis clans are examples of minor clans that through most of their history had no recognized family name. Emperor Toturi III ended this practice when he granted a family name to the Ox Clan, the only minor clan left that did not also have a family name.
First Minor Clan
The first minor clan, as acknowledged by the Emperor was the Fox Clan in 90. 
The founding of the Mantis Clan did occur in 80, a full ten years prior, but they were not recognized as a minor clan until some time later in 429.
Most Recent Minor Clan
The most recent creation of a minor clan was that of the Oriole Clan in 1167 in recognition of the Tsi family’s (a family of ronin) service to the Empire.
Ascension to Great Clan Status
For most of Rokugani history, no minor clan managed to attain anywhere near the strength or influence of a great clan. This changed on the Second Day of Thunder, when Yoritomo, through the power gained from his alliances with other minor clans, forced the other great clans to accept the Mantis Clan into their ranks. This is the only example of a minor clan ascending to Great Clan status in history.
The minor clans currently recognized by the Emperor’s court are:
|Badger Clan|110|Hida Domogu|
|Sparrow Clan|400|Doji Onegano
|Tortoise Clan|442|Agasha Kasuga
|Dragonfly Clan|704|Mirumoto Asijin and Isawa Maroko
|Hare Clan|750| Reichin (ronin)
|Monkey Clan|1129|Toku (ronin)
|Ox Clan|1158|Shinjo Morito
|Bat Clan|1165|Yoritomo Komori
Oriole Clan|1167|Tsi Zutaka (ronin)
There are also several clans that were once minor clans, but which have since been destroyed or absorbed by other clans:
|Minor Clan| Founded| Founder| Dissolved| Reason|
|Mantis Clan| 80| Hida Kaimetsu-uo| 1128| Became a Great Clan|
|Fox Clan| 90| Shinun| 1169| Joined the Mantis Clan|
|Snake Clan| 339| Isawa Chuda| 401| Destroyed by the Phoenix Clan|
|Centipede Clan| 347| Unnamed Phoenix Clan shugenja| 112| Joined the Mantis Clan|
|Boar Clan| 447| Heichi| 501| Disappeared (sacrificed to create the Anvil of Despair)|
|Falcon Clan| 834| Yotogi| 1125| Joined the Crab Clan|
|Tanuki Clan| Unknown| Unnamed Badger Clan Samurai| Unknown| Unknown|
|Wasp Clan| 1109| Tsuruchi| 1128| Joined the Mantis Clan|
The sources relating to this article are in conflict with each other.
There is some contention as to whether the absorbtion into the Crab Clan occurred in 1125 or 1129. Most sources point to 1129, but the official word from Unicorn Marketeer and Shawn Carman in the two threads linked in the Talk:Toritaka family Talk Page indicates 1125